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          OLED技術一覽

          2022-04-08
          1142
                

           

          OLED 意為有機發光二極管。與 OLED 顯示不同,OLED 照明技術主要用于通用照明和汽車應用。就這些應用領域而言,OLED具備發光均勻,外形超薄、輕巧等優勢。

          OLED stands for Organic Light Emitting Diode. OLED light technology, unlike OLED displays, is mainly used for general lighting and automotive applications. For these applications, it is favorable due to its homogeneous light emission and ultra-thin, lightweight form factor, among other things.

          OLED 技術可用于構建固態照明 (SSL),它由夾在兩個電極之間的薄碳基有機層組成。當施加直流電時,空穴和電子分別從陽極和陰極注入有機層,在有機分子上形成激發態。當處于激發態的激子躍遷回基態時,會發生電致發光并發出光。

          OLED technology can be used to build Solid-State Lighting (SSL), which consists of thin carbon-based organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes. When direct current is applied, holes and electrons are injected into the organic layers from the anode and cathode, respectively, forming an excited state on the organic molecules. When the excited state relaxes, electroluminescence occurs and light is emitted.

          發光顏色或波長由形成激發態的有機分子的結構決定。對 OLED 技術而言,有多種光色可供選擇。而 OLED 照明則是經過嚴格篩選的有機物的混合體,以實現所需的白光光譜。

          The color or wavelength of the emitted light is determined by the structure of the organic molecule that forms the excited state. In OLED technology, a variety of emission colors are available, but for OLED lighting, the mixture of organics is carefully selected to shape the resulting spectrum of emitted white light.

           

          OLED 照明面板包括提供機械結構和所需光學特性的透明基底?;装瑘D案化的透明導電層,通常是氧化銦錫 (ITO),用作底部電極或陽極。超薄的有機材料層沉積在陽極表面,然后是金屬陰極或第二電極。整個 OLED 層比人的頭發絲還細,每一層都包含多種有機材料。

          An OLED lighting panel starts with a transparent substrate that provides both the mechanical structure and the desired optical properties. The substrate contains a patterned transparent conductive layer, usually indium tin oxide (ITO), which serves as the bottom electrode or anode. Very thin layers of organic materials are deposited on the anode surface, followed by a metallic cathode or second electrode. The entire OLED stack is thinner than a human hair and each layer can contain several organic materials.

          與無機 LED 不同,有機材料是無序的,不需要形成單晶或沉積在昂貴的晶體基板上以實現高效發射。因此,OLED 照明的發光區域可以覆蓋絕大部分基板,并提供廣角、低眩光、無熱點的光源,是理想的大面積光源。當電極被圖案化時,OLED 照明寬廣而平坦的光發射還具備選擇性地瞄準具有高對比度的面板特定區域的能力,通過移動、定制和品牌化提供額外的交流層。

          Unlike inorganic LEDs, the organic materials are disordered and do not need to form single crystals or be deposited on expensive crystalline substrates for efficient emission. Therefore, the emission area with OLED lighting can cover most of the substrate and provides a wide, low glare light source with no hot spots, ideal for large area light sources. The wide, flat emission of OLED lighting also offers the ability to selectively target specific areas of the panel with high contrast when the electrodes are patterned, providing an additional layer of communication through movement, customization and branding with light.

           

          #OLED 的優點    

          Some advantages of OLEDs

           

          # OLED 與 LED    

          OLED vs LED

           

          LED 是微型、高度集中的光源,適用于生產汽車前燈、前照燈、手電筒和其他高強度、聚焦照明應用所需的強光束。為了使 LED 可用于汽車內飾照明或其他低強度領域,LED 光必須被漫射、散射和均勻化,最終降低所傳遞的發光能效。

          相比之下,OLED 發光面板本質上是均勻且無眩光的,因此 OLED 發光面板的能效與提供的光效率相匹配。這種影響非常顯著,以至于在某些應用中,OLED 照明解決方案比 LED 照明解決方案更均勻、更節能。

          LEDs are tiny, highly concentrated light sources thatare suited for producing intense beams of light required in car headlights,headlamps, torches and other high-intensity, focused lighting applications. Tomake LEDs useful for automotive interior lighting or other low-intensityapplications, the LED light must be diffused, scattered and homogenized, whichreduces the energy efficiency of the light ultimately delivered.

          In contrast, OLED light panels are inherentlyhomogeneous and glare-free, so the energy efficiency of OLED light panelsmatches the light efficiency delivered. This effect is so significant that insome applications, the OLED lighting solution is both more homogeneous and moreenergy efficient than the LED lighting solution.

           

          #OLED 照明與 OLED 顯示     

          OLED Lighting vs OLED Display

          OLED 顯示和 OLED 照明均基于相同的固態物理原理。OLED 技術由有機半導體材料組成,通電時會發光。 OLED 材料可直接發射全波長范圍的光,不需要熒光粉轉換來獲得所需的光譜。

          OLED 的光品質滿足以下兩種應用。在照明方面,自然漫射光束將 OLED 燈具定位為無眩光的全彩體驗,以實現視覺舒適。對于顯示領域,直接全彩輸出可實現包括真黑在內的高色域。

           

          Both the OLED display and OLED lighting are based on the same principles of solid-state physics. OLED technology consists of organic semiconductor materials that emit light when electrically energized. The OLED materials emit all wavelengths directly and do not require phosphor conversion to achieve the desired spectrum.

          The light quality of OLED fulfils both applications. For illumination, the naturally diffuse light beam positions OLED luminaires as a glare-free full color experience for visual comfort. For display, the direct color output enables a high color gamut including true black.

          作為一種功能性的光源,OLED可提供發光均勻、較大發光面、較高亮度的白光照明。燈具的使用壽命通常超過10年。相比之下,顯示器通常亮度較低,作為單獨尋址的紅、綠、藍 (RGB) 像素運行,壽命較短。顯示器傳輸圖像、視頻和消息,通常以非常高的刷新率運行 (>120Hz)。

          As a functional light source, OLEDs work as a uniform, large area, high brightness, white spectrum light engine. The service life of the lighting usually exceeds 10 years. Displays, by comparison, typically have a fraction of the brightness and operate as individually addressed red, green, blue (RGB) pixels that have a shorter life. Displays transmit images, videos and messages - usually at very high image data rates (>120Hz).

           

          #OLED顯示與照明的區別總結   

          Summary of the differences between OLED display and illumination

          與 OLED 顯示器不同,OLED 燈具針對照明進行了優化,因此 OLED 燈具比 OLED 顯示器更亮(OLED 燈具為 8,000 nit,而 OLED 顯示器的亮度低于 1,000 nit)。OLED 燈具的使用壽命也比 OLED 顯示器長得多。與 OLED 顯示器相比,OLED 照明在連續使用超過 100,000 小時后會降至初始亮度的 70%,而同期 OLED 顯示器從低得多的初始亮度降至 50%。

           

          OLED luminaires are optimized for illumination, unlike OLED displays, so OLED luminaires are much brighter than OLED displays (8,000 nits for OLED luminaires compared to less than 1,000 nits for OLED displays). OLED luminaires also have a much longer lifetime than OLED displays. OLED lighting drops to 70% of initial brightness at over 100,000 hours of continuous use compared to OLED displays, which drop from a much lower initial brightness to 50% over the same period.

           

          此外,OLED 燈具的設計和制造具有成本效益,OLED 照明面板成本已非常優異,而OLED 顯示器價格則居高不下。OLED 顯示器的高幀率使其非常適合通過電話屏幕和電視顯示圖像、視頻和消息。

           

          Finally, OLED luminaires are designed and manufactured to be cost effective, with OLED lighting panels being more like an incandescent bulb than the high-end price of an OLED display. The OLED display's high frame rate capability makes it ideal for displaying images, videos and messages via phone screens and televisions.

           

          #健康和舒適    

          Health and well-being

           
          暴露于高強度藍色波長與黃斑變性和晝夜節律紊亂有關,具體取決于暴露時間。冷白光的熒光燈和白熾燈則對人們的眼睛傷害更大。
           
          OLED 本身就是安全的,因為它們可發出所有波長的光,包括藍光。 OLED 所發出的光強遠低于造成風險的標準等級。從IEC標準對OLED所發出的藍光和紅外光生理風險得出結論- OLED 不會對皮膚或眼睛構成風險,并且無任何光生物風險。

          Exposure to high-intensity blue wavelengths is associated with macular degeneration and circadian rhythm disturbances, depending on the exposure time. Light sources such as fluorescent lamps, which are bright white and cool, and incandescent bulbs have a higher risk for damaging to your eyes.

          OLEDs are inherently safe because they deliver all wavelengths of light, including blue light. OLEDs deliver the light levels you need at an intensity far below the risk of damage. This is validated by the IEC standard for the physiological risk of blue and infrared light - OLEDs pose no risk to skin or eyes and are considered free of all photobiological risks.

          寬光譜 OLED 燈提供全色調色板,同時消除大多數人工照明解決方案的負面特性,如紫外線、眩光、陰影和閃爍。將 OLED 的亮度與其獨有的柔軟度相結合,可以改善環境并提供類似日光的光線,即使您整天坐在室內,一直如白天般感覺。

          Wide-spectrum OLED light provides a full color palette while eliminating the negative characteristics of most artificial lighting solutions such as UV, glare, shadow and flicker. OLED's combination of brightness and inimitable softness enhances the environment and provides with daylight-like light - even if you sit indoors all day.

           

           

          #可持續性    

          Sustainability

           

          世界上將近20% 的電力用于照明。照明能源占全球溫室氣體的 6%,大約為 19 億噸二氧化碳,約占全球所有乘用車排放量的70%(來源:聯合國環境規劃署)。通過使用節能照明——例如 OLED 照明——這些數值可以被顯著降低。測試表明,OLED 照明效率正變得與 LED 一樣高效,節能率高達 80% 。這說明與傳統白熾燈泡相比,OLED照明的節能效果更加顯著。此外,這種OLED光源的制造過程非常高效。

           

          Almost 20 percent of the world's electricity is used for lighting. Energy for lighting accounts for six percent of global greenhouse gases. That is about 1.9 billion tons of CO2 or about 70 percent of the emissions of all passenger cars worldwide (source: United Nations Environment Program). By using energy-saving lighting - such as OLED lighting - these values can be significantly reduced. Tests have shown that OLED lighting becomes about as efficient as LEDs already are. These provide up to 80 percent better efficiency, illustrating the energy savings with OLED lighting compared to traditional incandescent bulbs. In addition, the manufacturing process of this light source is very efficient.
           

          OLED 燈具是面光源,無需漫射光的漫射屏。這有一個主要優勢,因為使用傳統光源時,系統會損失多達 70% 的光輸出。采用OLED照明技術,光源的效率等于系統效率。此外,OLED 照明燈幾乎 100% 由玻璃制成,可以在損壞后輕松回收。

           

          OLED luminaires are surfacelight sources that eliminate the need for a diffuser screen that diffuses thelight. This has a major advantage, because with conventional light sources up to70 percent of the light output is lost through the system. With OLED lighting technology,the efficiency of the light source is equal to the system efficiency.Additionally, OLED lighting is almost 100 percent glass, that can be easilyrecycled at the end of its life. 

           

           

          #OLED的一些缺點    

          Some disadvantages of OLEDs

           

          OLED 的使用壽命取決于溫度:低初始光度但散熱良好的 OLED(任何顏色)比從一開始就以最大光度運行而無散熱的OLED 具有更長壽命,這是因為在較高溫度下OLED材料的擴散發生得更快。

          OLED 的另一個缺點是,與LED相比,市售 OLED 的發光效率僅為 40 lm/W - 60 lm/W范圍內。OLED的實驗室測試光效最高僅能達到略高于 100 lm/W ,而發光二極管的實驗室測試值可達200 lm/W。

           

          The service life of OLEDs is temperature-dependent: A well-cooled OLED (of any color) with a low initial luminosity always has a longer life than an OLED that is operated at maximum luminosity from the start without cooling. This is due to diffusion processes in the OLED that occur more quickly at higher temperatures.

          Another disadvantage of OLEDs is the lower luminous efficacy in the range of 40 lm/W to 60 lm/W of commercially available OLEDs compared to light-emitting diodes. Peak values of selected laboratory samples of OLEDs achieve values just above 100 lm/W. Light-emitting diodes achieve laboratory values of 200 lm/W.

           

          除了壽命較短和發光效率較低之外,OLED還易與某些外部物質發生反應。除了由于潮濕而無處不在的水汽之外,滲透的氧氣也會破壞有機材料。因此,將顯示器密封并保護其免受外部影響非常重要。必要的剛性封裝削弱了其靈活性。高活性的鈣和鋇注入層尤其容易受到氧氣的腐蝕。被腐蝕的典型跡象是圓形、不斷增大的暗區,即所謂的“黑點”。原因通常是金屬層氣相沉積過程中的顆粒污染。多層結構的微觀邊緣也被腐蝕滲透,導致顯示屏中有效發光像素面積的減少。

           

          In addition to shorter life and lower luminous efficacy, OLEDs also react sensitively to certain external substances. In addition to water, which is omnipresent due to humidity, penetrating oxygen can also destroy the organic material. It is therefore important to hermetically encapsulate the display and protect it from external influences. The necessary rigid encapsulation impairs flexibility. The highly reactive injection layer of calcium and barium is especially endangered by corrosion with oxygen. Typical signs of failure are circular, growing non-luminous areas, so-called "dark spots". The cause is often particle contamination during vapor deposition of the metal layers. The microscopic edges of the multilayer structure are also infiltrated by corrosion, which leads to a decrease in the effective luminous pixel area in screen applications.

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